In this work we describe the development of cost and performance projections for utility-scale lithium-ion battery systems, with a focus on 4-hour duration systems. The projections are developed from an analysis of 19 publications that consider utility-scale storage costs. The suite of publications demonstrates varied cost reductions for battery storage over time.
Battery variable operations and maintenance costs, lifetimes, and efficiencies are also discussed, with recommended values selected based on the publications surveyed.
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